Biomass Energy And Human Health: The Environmental Impacts Of Energy Production


Biomass is the oldest form of energy used by humans, dating back to the ancient times when we burned wood to keep warm. Today, biomass energy is still widely used, especially in developing countries where it provides up to 90% of the total energy consumed.

Biomass energy refers to the energy produced by burning organic matter such as wood, agricultural waste, and biogas. It is a renewable source of energy because the organic matter used for its production can be replenished naturally. Despite its many benefits, biomass energy also has several environmental impacts that affect human health.

Environmental Impacts

Air and Water Pollution

Biomass energy production releases several pollutants into the air and water. When burned, the organic matter produces carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. The process also releases particulate matter and other toxins such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) into the atmosphere. These pollutants are known to have adverse health effects on humans, especially those who live near biomass energy production facilities.

In addition, the production of biomass energy requires a significant amount of water. The organic matter used for biomass energy production requires irrigation, and the process itself generates wastewater that may contain pollutants. This water pollution can have severe health effects on humans, especially those who rely on the affected water sources for their daily activities.


Biomass energy production can result in deforestation and land degradation. Trees and other vegetation are often cleared to create space for the cultivation of crops and the production of organic matter used for biomass energy. This process not only reduces the number of trees in an area, it also disturbs the ecosystem, alters the water cycle and changes the microclimate. The loss of trees leads to decreased carbon sequestration capacity, resulting in increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and potential loss of wildlife and biodiversity.

Soil Erosion

Deforestation and land degradation resulting from biomass energy production processes can also lead to soil erosion. When trees and vegetation cover is removed, soil is exposed to the elements and can be washed away by rain and wind. Soil erosion can lead to a decrease in soil productivity and cause severe impacts on crop production. Soil erosion also exacerbates the effects of climate change, contributing to desertification and land degradation.

Human Health Impacts

Respiratory Problems

The organic matter used for biomass energy production releases particulate matter into the air when burned. These fine particles are small enough to bypass the body’s natural filtration systems and enter the lungs, causing respiratory problems such as wheezing, coughing, and asthma attacks. The pollutants in the air have also been associated with lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke.

Skin Diseases

Prolonged exposure to polluted water resulting from biomass energy production can cause skin diseases such as dermatitis, eczema, and rashes. In areas where water is a scarce resource, such diseases can be debilitating to the community.

Degradation of Livelihoods

Land degradation resulting from biomass energy production can lead to a decrease in the productivity of the soil, leading to decreased yields in crops. The loss of vegetation and trees also results in the loss of habitats for wildlife, affecting the livelihoods of those who rely on subsistence agriculture.


Biomass energy has many benefits, including its renewable and readily available nature. Despite this, it has significant environmental impacts on human health and the ecosystem. Air and water pollution, deforestation, and soil erosion resulting from biomass energy production processes can lead to severe health effects on humans such as respiratory problems and skin diseases. These impacts can also lead to livelihood degradation, loss of biodiversity, and the loss of productivity in agriculture. To mitigate the environmental impacts of biomass energy and protect the health of humans, measures such as employing clean energy technologies, better management of organic matter, and reforestation practices should be implemented.

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