How Hydroelectric Power Can Help Developing Countries


For developing countries, the provision of electricity for households, industries, and other essential services is crucial for socioeconomic development. However, access to reliable and affordable electricity services is still a challenge in many developing countries, where a significant number of people, especially in rural areas, still lack access to electricity. Hydroelectric power offers a sustainable and reliable energy source that could help developing countries bridge the energy gap. This article explores how hydroelectric power can help developing countries.

What is hydroelectric power?

Hydroelectric power refers to electricity generated by the conversion of energy from falling water. It is a form of renewable energy that can be used to produce electricity without the use of fossil fuels. Hydroelectric power generation involves the construction of a dam on a river to create a reservoir that stores water. The dam controls the amount of water that flows through the turbines, which generates electricity.

Hydroelectric power potential in developing countries

Developing countries have immense potential for hydroelectric power generation. According to the International Hydropower Association (IHA), more than 50% of the world’s technically feasible hydropower potential is located in developing countries. This potential is concentrated in countries with large rivers and significant topographical features like mountains, valleys, and gorges.

Benefits of hydroelectric power for developing countries

Hydroelectric power has several benefits for developing countries. These include:

Sustainable and renewable energy

Hydroelectric power does not involve the burning of fossil fuels. Therefore, it reduces carbon emissions and other pollutants that contribute to climate change. Additionally, the source of hydropower is water, which is a renewable resource and, therefore, more sustainable than non-renewable sources.


Hydroelectric power offers a reliable source of electricity since water is predictable and controlled. This makes it easier for power plants to plan for electricity generation and respond to changing demand.

Economic benefits

Hydroelectric power offers economic benefits to developing countries. The construction of hydroelectric power plants creates jobs and provides employment opportunities, especially in rural areas. Additionally, hydroelectric power can reduce dependence on imported fuels, hence saving on foreign exchange.

Increased access to electricity

Hydroelectric power can increase access to electricity in developing countries, especially in rural areas. This can help improve living standards, boost economic growth, and reduce poverty.

Reduced greenhouse gas emissions

Hydroelectric power plants do not emit greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane. Therefore, they can help developing countries reduce their carbon footprint and contribute to global efforts to mitigate climate change.

Improved environmental conditions

Hydroelectric power plants can help improve environmental conditions in developing countries. By reducing dependence on fossil fuels, hydroelectric power can reduce air pollution and improve the overall air quality.

Challenges of hydroelectric power for developing countries

Despite its benefits, hydroelectric power also presents some challenges for developing countries. These challenges include:

Initial capital investment

The construction of hydroelectric power plants requires huge capital investments. Developing countries may face difficulties in accessing capital, either through government revenues or foreign investment, to fund the construction of hydropower infrastructure.

Environmental and social impacts

The construction of hydroelectric power plants can have significant environmental and social impacts. These include deforestation, loss of biodiversity, displacement of local communities, and changes in river dynamics. Developing countries must address these environmental and social challenges to balance the benefits of hydropower generation with environmental sustainability and social justice.

Accessibility and connectivity

Hydroelectric power plants are usually located in remote or mountainous areas. Building hydropower infrastructure and the transmission lines required to transport electricity can be challenging, especially in developing countries with poor infrastructure.


Hydroelectric power holds great potential for meeting the energy needs of developing countries. By offering a sustainable and clean source of electricity, hydroelectric power can help reduce poverty, improve economic growth and environmental conditions, and increase access to electricity. However, developing countries must carefully consider and address the challenges of hydroelectric power, especially the environmental and social impacts, to ensure that hydropower generation is sustainable and benefits all stakeholders.

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