Hydroelectric Power: A Step Toward Global Decarbonization


As countries around the world commit to reducing their carbon emissions, many are turning to a variety of renewable energy sources to help meet their goals. Hydroelectric power is one of the oldest and most widely used forms of renewable energy in the world, and for good reason – it offers a reliable and sustainable source of electricity while producing no carbon emissions.

In this article, we will explore what hydroelectric power is, how it works, and its potential to help the world decarbonize.

What is Hydroelectric Power?

Simply put, hydroelectric power is electricity that is generated from the flow of water, typically in the form of large rivers or reservoirs. This energy is harnessed by using turbines to convert the kinetic energy of the flowing water into electrical energy.

The process of generating hydroelectric power requires the construction of a dam, which creates a reservoir of water. When the water is released, it flows through tunnels and other channels, pushing the blades of the turbines, which in turn generate electricity.

Benefits of Hydroelectric Power

There are many benefits to using hydroelectric power as a source of renewable energy. These include:

1. Reliability

Hydroelectric power is one of the most reliable sources of renewable energy available today. Unlike solar or wind power, which are dependent on weather conditions, hydroelectric power can be generated consistently throughout the year, as long as there is a steady supply of water.

2. Sustainability

Hydroelectric power is a completely sustainable source of energy, as long as the natural water cycle is allowed to function properly. The construction of a hydroelectric dam may have negative environmental impacts, but once it is built, the energy it produces has no carbon footprint and requires no additional fuel.

3. Flexibility

Hydroelectric power can be used to provide electricity on a large scale, or on a small scale in remote locations. It is easily scalable, which allows it to meet the needs of both large cities and rural communities.

4. Cost-effectiveness

While the initial construction costs of a hydroelectric dam can be high, the ongoing maintenance costs are relatively low. Additionally, the cost of generating electricity from hydroelectric power is often lower than that of other renewable energy sources, making it an attractive option for many countries.

Hydroelectric Power and Decarbonization

Hydroelectric power has the potential to play a significant role in global decarbonization efforts. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), hydroelectric power is currently the largest source of renewable energy in the world, accounting for 16% of global electricity generation in 2020.

In order to achieve greater decarbonization, the IEA suggests that countries increase their investment in renewable energy, particularly in hydroelectric power. They predict that by 2040, hydroelectric power could provide up to 17% of the world’s electricity demand.

Hydroelectric power can also serve as a complement to other forms of renewable energy, such as solar and wind power. When these sources are unavailable or insufficient, hydroelectric power can be used to provide backup power.


Hydroelectric power offers a reliable, sustainable, and cost-effective source of renewable energy that can help the world move towards decarbonization. While it does require the construction of dams, which can have negative impacts on the environment, the benefits of hydroelectric power make it a valuable addition to any country’s energy mix.

As countries around the world work to reduce their carbon emissions and transition to cleaner forms of energy, hydroelectric power should be considered a key component in these efforts. With its many benefits and vast potential for growth, hydroelectric power can help lead the way towards a more sustainable future.

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