Hydroelectric Power And Cybersecurity Risks

Hydroelectric power is a renewable and reliable energy source that provides a significant percentage of the world’s electricity. In the United States, hydroelectric power plants account for approximately 6% of the total electricity generation. However, with the integration of new technologies and digital systems, the risk of cyber threats is increasing. In this article, we will discuss the cybersecurity risks associated with hydroelectric power and the measures that can be taken to mitigate them.

What is Hydroelectric Power?

Hydroelectric power is generated from the energy of falling water. The process involves the flow of water from a high-altitude area to a low-altitude one, which is used to rotate a turbine. The turbine, in turn, drives a generator to produce electricity. Hydroelectric power plants can be found in dams, reservoirs, and run-of-the-river systems.

Cybersecurity Risks in Hydroelectric Power

As hydroelectric power plants become more digitized, they become increasingly vulnerable to cyber threats. Unlike traditional power plants, which operate on a centralized system, hydroelectric power plants employ complex digital systems that consist of various interconnected devices. Consequently, this system presents a more significant cybersecurity risk than most traditional power plants.

Cybersecurity risks in hydroelectric power plants include:

Unauthorized Access

Cybercriminals can hack into hydroelectric power plants’ digital networks to gain unauthorized access to control systems, operational data, and critical infrastructure. The criminal can then steal data, manipulate operations, or cause physical damage to the plant.

Phishing Attacks

Hydroelectric power plant employees are also at risk of phishing attacks, which can result in unauthorized access to password-protected digital systems. A phishing attack is a type of social engineering attack in which a cybercriminal disguises themselves as a trusted entity to obtain sensitive information.


Hydroelectric power plants’ digital systems are vulnerable to malware attacks that can infiltrate networks and wreak havoc on operational systems. Malware is a type of malicious software that can disrupt, damage, or steal information.

Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs)

An advanced persistent threat is a stealthy and long-term cyber attack in which the attacker gains unauthorized access to a system and remains undetected for a long time. APTs in hydroelectric power plants can lead to significant data breaches, disruption of power production, and physical damage to the infrastructure.

Cybersecurity Best Practices for Hydroelectric Power

To mitigate the risks associated with hydroelectric power and cybersecurity, power plant operators must adhere to the following best practices:

Conduct Regular Cybersecurity Risk Assessments

Power plant operators must regularly assess cybersecurity risks to identify potential vulnerabilities and take measures to mitigate them. Regular risk assessments can also help to detect and respond to cyber threats before they cause significant damage.

Implement Strong Password Policies

Power plant operators must enforce strong password policies to prevent unauthorized access to digital systems. Passwords should be complex, unique, and changed regularly.

Train Employees on Cybersecurity Best Practices

Power plant employees must understand the importance of cybersecurity and comply with security protocols to minimize the risk of cyber threats. Cybersecurity training should be provided regularly to keep employees informed and aware of the latest threats.

Utilize Multi-Factor Authentication

Using multi-factor authentication can protect against unauthorized access to digital systems. Multi-factor authentication is a security process that requires two or more forms of identification to grant access.

Implement Cybersecurity Technologies

Power plant operators must adopt cybersecurity technologies, such as firewalls, antivirus software, and intrusion detection systems, to safeguard against cyber threats. These technologies can help to prevent and detect cybersecurity breaches.


As hydroelectric power plants become more digitized, the risk of cyber threats increases. Cybersecurity risks in hydroelectric power plants include unauthorized access, phishing attacks, malware, and APTs. To mitigate these risks, power plant operators must conduct regular cybersecurity risk assessments, implement strong password policies, train employees on cybersecurity best practices, utilize multi-factor authentication, and implement cybersecurity technologies. By adopting these best practices, hydroelectric power plants can operate securely and reliably in the digital age.

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